giliardialves

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Uma nova espécie de Orthoderella Giglio-Tos (Mantodea, Mantidae, Photinainae) do Brasil

A new species of Orthoderella Giglio-Tos (Mantodea, Mantidae, Photinainae) from Brazil

Eliomar da Cruz Menezes; Freddy Bravo

ABSTRACT

A new species of Orthoderella Giglio-Tos (Mantodea, Mantidae, Photinainae) from Brazil. The Neotropical genus Orthoderella Giglio-Tos includes four species recorded in Argentina, Bolivia, Uruguay, and from central western, southern, and southeastern Brazil. Orthoderella caatingaensis sp. nov., from the Caatinga biome in northeastern Brazil, is described here. This new species can be recognized by having a black spot on the inner face of the fore coxae, which extends to its posterior external face; phalloid apophysis of the left dorsal phallomere trapezoidal in shape with the right margin sinuous and a laminate anterior process; and a ventral phallomere with a sclerotized and rugous distal process. An identification key, in both Portuguese and English, to the five species of Orthoderella is presented.

Fonte: Scielo

Primeiro registro de ocorrência de Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) no Brasil

First reported occurrence of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil

Cecília Czepak, Karina Cordeiro Albernaz, Lúcia Madalena Vivan, Humberto Oliveira Guimarães, Tiago Carvalhais

ABSTRACT


In this study is reported the first occurrence, in Brazil, of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which was considered up till now a quarantine pest. The notification occurred in the Goiás State, in soybean; Bahia State, in volunteer soybean; and Mato Grosso State, in cotton.


RESUMO


Neste trabalho, é relatada a primeira ocorrência de Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) no Brasil, que era considerada, até o momento, uma praga quarentenária. A notificação ocorreu nos Estados de Goiás, na cultura da soja; Bahia, em tiguera de soja; e Mato Grosso, na cultura do algodoeiro.

 

 

Lagartas de H. armigera atacando vagem de soja (a), em Palmeiras de Goiás (GO), e maçã-do-algodoeiro (b), em Rondonópolis (MT), na safra 2012/2013.

 

Fonte: UFG

 

The genus Apiococcus Hempel (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae), with redescription of two species

Patricia González; Lucía E. Claps

ABSTRACT

The genus Apiococcus Hempel (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae), with redescription of two species. Apiococcus Hempel is a genus from Brazil composed of four gall-inducing species. The adult females of two species, Apiococcus globosus Hempel and A. singularis Hempel, from Brazil, are redescribed and illustrated. Keys to the species of the genus and their galls are given.

Fonte: Scielo

Alphus marinonii sp. nov., nova espécie para o Peru e Brasil (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae)

Diego de Santana Souza; Marcela Laura Monné

 

ABSTRACT

Alphus marinonii sp. nov., new species from Peru and Brazil (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae). A new species of Alphus, A. marinonii sp. nov., from Peru and Brazil (Rondônia) is described. Key to identification and pictures for the four species of the genus are provided. Notes on distribution of A. tuberosus are included, with a new record for Peru and Brazil (Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul). 

 

Fonte: Scielo

Lagarta que ataca safra atual ainda não havia sido identificada no Brasil, descobre Embrapa

Os pesquisadores da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa) descobriram que a lagarta que vem atacando lavouras de algodão, milho e soja em diversas regiões, em especial no oeste da Bahia, não é da espécie "zea", e sim a "helicoverpa armigera", que ainda não havia sido identificada no Brasil. Os produtores baianos estimam que os prejuízos por menor produtividade e gastos no controle da praga somem R$ 1 bilhão.

O presidente da Embrapa, Maurício Antônio Lopes, durante reunião nesta sexta, dia 22, no gabinete do ministro Antônio Andrade, da Agricultura, afirmou que, como se trata de uma praga nova, a "helicoverpa armigera", será enquadrada na classificação de quarentenária A1. A classificação enquadra as pragas exóticas, não presentes no País, que podem causar importantes danos econômicos. A hipótese mais provável apontada pela Embrapa é que a lagarta ingressou no Brasil por meio de importação de flores e outros materiais de propagação vegetativa.

Segundo a Associação Brasileira dos Produtores de Algodão (Abrapa), na reunião desta sexta o ministro Antônio Andrade garantiu que, a partir da classificação da praga, o governo vai liberar, em caráter emergencial, a importação e o uso de inseticidas à base do princípio ativo benzoato ememectina, reconhecidamente eficaz no combate à lagarta e utilizados em países como Austrália, Estados Unidos e Japão, bem como em toda a União Europeia e na África.

Gilson Pinesso, presidente da Abrapa, observa que a liberação dos inseticidas vai auxiliar o produtor, mas é preciso precaução com a safra 2013/2014.

— Usar o produto agora vai ajudar o produtor a terminar a safra com mais segurança, mas é preciso pensar na liberação dele para o início da próxima, para não corrermos o risco de enfrentar tudo novamente — disse, acrescentando que o ministro Antônio Andrade prometeu que a portaria será publicada na segunda, dia 25.

 

 

Helicoverpa armigera 

Fonte: Ruralbr

First Report of Downy Mildew Caused by Peronospora sordida on Butterflybush (Buddleja stachyoides) in Brazil

S. T. Albuquerque, F. B. Rocha, and R. W. Barreto, Departamento de Fitopatologia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Brazil


Butterflybush (common name in Brazil, verbasco), Buddleja stachyoides Cham. & Schltdl. (Buddlejaceae), is an erect herb or small shrub, native to Brazil, that is listed both as a folk medicinal plant and as a pasture weed (4). In March 2012, a group of B. stachyoides plants growing in a pasture in Viçosa (state of Minas Gerais, Brazil), were found bearing typical downy mildew symptoms. The only pathogen reported associated with this plant species is Podosphaera xanthii (1) and because there is no record of downy mildew on members of Buddleja in Brazil, an investigation was carried out to clarify the pathogen identity. Diseased plants had lesions on living leaves that were vein-delimited, chlorotic, coalescing, and becoming necrotic adaxially and bearing downy mildew-like colonies over diseased tissues abaxially. The samples were dried in a plant press and a representative specimen was deposited in the local herbarium at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (Accession No. VIC 31836). Reproductive structures were scraped from leaves with a scalpel and mounted in lactophenol. Preliminary observations indicated the pathogen as belonging to Peronospora (Peronosporaceae). The pathogen had the following morphology: Sporangiophores are 288 to 641 μm long, dichotomously branching up to seven times, hyaline, smooth, 5 to 16 μm wide at the trunk, branches 63 to 202 μm long; tips subacute, in pairs or rarely single, 5 to 19 μm long; sporangia subglobose to ellipsoidal, 12 to 22 × 11 to 17 μm, pale yellowish brown, non-papillate. Only one species of Peronospora is known to infect members of Buddleja, namely Peronospora hariotii Gäum. (1). Nevertheless, the pathogen on B. stachyoides has smaller sporangia as compared to those of P. hariotii (20 to 26 × 16 to 21 μm) (2) and it was closer to P. sordida (3). DNA of the pathogen from B. stachyoides was extracted and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX2) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were sequenced. Sequences were deposited in GenBank (COX2 as JX982637; ITS as JX982638). A BLAST search yielded 99% and 100% of maximum identity with P. sordida for COX2 and ITS, respectively. A more detailed phylogenetic study is necessary to clarify the relationship between P. sordida, P. hariotii, and related species causing downy mildew on closely related hosts. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. sordida occurring on a member of the genus Buddleja. This is also the first time that P. sordida is reported from South America.

References: (1) D. F. Farr and A. Y. Rossman. Fungal Databases. Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory, ARS, USDA. Retrieved from http://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/, 19 October 2012. (2) S. M. Francis. C.M.I. Descr. Pathog. Fungi Bact. 767:1, 1983. (3) G. Hall. I.M.I. Descr. Fungi Bact. 1062:1, 1991. (4) K. G. Kissmann and D. Groth. Plantas Infestantes e Nocivas. São Paulo, BASF, 1997.

Link: APS Journals

First Report of the Root Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne inornata, on Common Bean in Paraná State, Brazil

A. C. Z. Machado and O. F. Dorigo, Instituto Agronômico do Paraná, 86047-902, Londrina, PR, Brazil; and D. Mattei, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, 87507-190, Umuarama, PR, Brazil


Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris F.) is one of the most important crops in Paraná State, which is responsible for almost 10% of the Brazilian production (4). Root knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are common parasites of this crop worldwide, but damage caused by Meloidogyne inornata has not been reported. During a survey of nematode species present on common bean fields in Paraná State, Brazil, galled root samples of cultivars Tuiuiú and Eldorado were submitted, in June 2012, in the Nematology Laboratory from IAPAR, collected in the municipalities of Araucária (25°35′34″S, 49°24′36″W) and Santana do Itararé (23°45′18″S, 49°37′44″W). Plants did not exhibit any above-ground symptoms. The specimens were identified through perineal patterns and esterase phenotypes of 20 adult females extracted from dissected roots (2,3). The population densities observed in the samples were 140 and 700 J2 and eggs per gram of roots, respectively, for both samples. Characteristics were consistent with those described for M. inornata. For example, perineal patterns of M. inornata showed a high dorsal arch, with smooth to wavy striae, similar to those of M. incognita; but no punctate markings between anus and tail terminus were observed. However, from the esterase electrophoresis we obtained the I3 (Rm = 0.83, 1.15, and 1.32) phenotype, typical of M. inornata, a species-specific phenotype used to differentiate this species from M. incognita (1). Moreover, the excretory pore of adult females was located 32.1 (± 5.4) μm from the anterior end, consistent with the M. inornata description (25 to 53 μm) (1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of M. inornata parasitizing common bean roots. This finding has great importance for Brazilian agriculture, since this nematode may damage common bean plants and become an additional problem for this crop. Additional work is necessary in order to elucidate the losses caused by M. inornata on common bean.

References: (1) R. M. D. G. Carneiro et al. Nematology 10:123, 2008. (2) P. R. Esbenshade and A. C. Triantaphyllou J. Nematol. 22:10, 1990. (3) K. M. Hartman and J. N. Sasser. Page 115 in: An Advanced Treatise on Meloidogyne, Volume II Methodology. K. R. Barker et al., eds. Raleigh: North Carolina State University Graphics, 1985. (4) MAPA. Feijão, Ministério da Agricultura, Brasil. Retrieved from http://www.agricultura.gov.br/vegetal/culturas/feijao September 05, 2012.

Link: APS Journals

Identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Race 3 Infecting Tomatoes in Northeast Brazil

E. A. Barboza, C. S. Cabral, and A. M. Gonçalves, Universidade de Brasília (UnB) Dept. Fitopatologia,70910-900, Brasília-DF, Brazil; and A. Reis, M. E. N. Fonseca, and L. S. Boiteux, Embrapa Hortaliças (CNPH), CP 218, 70359-970, Brasília-DF, Brazil

The three races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) are important tomato pathogens throughout the world, causing severe economic losses (1). In Brazil, races 1 and 2 are widespread, but the current geographic distribution of race 3 is restricted to the mild climate areas of Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro States in the southeast region (2,3). Here we report the spread of FOL race 3 to the warm northeast region of Brazil. Plants in commercial fields of the hybrid ‘Alambra’ (resistant to FOL races 1 and 2) were found displaying chlorosis, vascular browning, and wilt symptoms in Jaguaquara County, Bahia State, Brazil. Disease incidence ranged from 10 to 50%. The virulence profile of six isolates obtained from three distinct tomato-producing fields was investigated by root-dipping inoculation (106 conidia/ml) of 21-day-old seedlings from a set of FOL race differential accessions: ‘Ponderosa’ (susceptible to all races), ‘IPA-5’ (FOL race 1 resistance; I-1 locus); ‘Alambra’ and ‘Floradade’ (FOL races 1 and 2 resistance; I-2 gene), and Solanum pennellii ‘LA 716’ (resistant to all three races; I-3 locus). All six isolates were able to induce severe wilt symptoms in 100% of the plants from all lines but S. pennellii ‘LA 716’. FOL race 3 identity was confirmed via PCR assays employing a specific set of primers that are able to discriminate all the three FOL races as well as F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici isolates (1). Total DNA was extracted from pure fungal colonies growing in agar medium. The typical FOL race 3 amplicon profiles (i.e. positive for the primers uni, sp13, and sp23 and negative for the primer sprl) were observed only in the six FOL 3 isolates from Bahia as well as in five reference isolates of race 3 (previously obtained from tomato in Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro States), thus confirming their race identities. This recent, fast, and wide geographic expansion of the FOL race 3 in Brazil suggests that the pathogen has been introduced into new tomato producing areas via either contaminated seeds or seedlings. Because of the complexity of establishing effective chemical and cultural control strategies, these epidemics caused by FOL race 3 in distinct areas of Brazil might cause the replacement of the currently grown susceptible hybrids by resistant ones.

Fusarium wilt 

 

References: (1) Y. Hirano and T. Arie. J. Gen. Plant Pathol. 72:273, 2006; (2) A. Reis et al. Fitopatol. Bras. 30:426, 2005; (3) A. Reis and L. S. Boiteux. Hort. Bras. 25:451, 2007.

Link: APS Journals

‘Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense’ (16SrXV-A Subgroup) Associated with Cauliflower Displaying Stunt Symptoms in Brazil

M. C. Canale and I. P. Bedendo, Department of Plant Pathology and Nematology, ESALQ/USP, 13.418-900, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil

Cauliflower stunt, caused by a phytoplasma of the group 16SrIII-J, was reported in the beginning of 2012 and has occurred with high incidences of infected plants (up to 90%) in crops located in the state of São Paulo in the southeast region of Brazil (3). Diseased plants exhibit general stunting, malformation of inflorescence, reddening leaves, and vessel necrosis (3). Further investigations with plants displaying identical symptoms collected in Nova Bassano, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazilian south region, have revealed the presence of a phytoplasma distinct from 16SrIII-J subgroup. Four symptomatic plus four asymptomatic samples were assayed from a field, and the presence of phytoplasma was evidenced by nested PCR assays performed with primers P1/Tint followed by R16F2n/16R2 in three affected plants, which amplified genomic fragments of 1.2 kb from the 16S rRNA gene. No amplification occurred in non-affected samples. Nested PCR products analyzed by conventional RFLP (2) using the enzymes AluI, RsaI, KpnI, HpaII, MseI, HhaI, MboI, and BstUI pointed to the presence of a phytoplasma belonging to group 16SrXV-A in all three phytoplasma-positive samples. Virtual RFLP analysis based on restriction patterns, derived from in silico digestion with 17 endonucleases (4), confirmed the previous results obtained from those samples by conventional RFLP. The 16S rDNA sequences of this phytoplasma identified in cauliflower (GenBank Accession No. JN818845) shared 99% sequence similarity with the reference phytoplasma for subgroup 16SrXV-A (Hibiscus witches'-broom phytoplasma, AF147708), designated ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense.’ Analysis of putative restriction sites showed excellent identity between the phytoplasma studied here and the reference phytoplasma. In addition, the arrangement of branches of a phylogenetic tree constructed with phytoplasmas representing diverse 16Sr groups and subgroups supported that the phytoplasma found in cauliflower is closed related to the representative of the subgroup 16SrXV-A. Association of distinct phytoplasmas with the same kind of disease is not rare and the present pathosystem constitutes a new example. Members of this subgroup have been described almost exclusively in Brazil and previously reported in Sida sp., periwinkle, and hibiscus (1). In some European countries, as well as in the United States and Canada, phytoplasmas belonging to group 16SrI has been associated with this type of disease, which has been reported for various species of the genus Brassica, as published in previous works (3). However, a representative of the group 16SrVI was described in infected plants in Iran (3). Although the 16SrIII-J phytoplasma is currently the most important agent of cauliflower stunt in Brazil, and members of 16SrI are prevalent in other countries, this study revealed that a 16Sr XV-A phytoplasma may be also associated with this important disease of brassicas. Besides, the findings here reported expand the natural host range, including cauliflower as new host for phytoplasmas affiliated with 16SrXV-A.

References: (1) B. Eckstein et al. Plant Dis. 95:363, 2009. (2) I. M. Lee et al. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 48:1153, 1998. (3) M. C. C. Rappussi et al. Eur. J. Plant. Pathol. 133:829, 2012. (4) Wei et al. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57:1855, 2007.

Link: APS Journals

First Report of Powdery Mildew Caused by Golovinomyces sp. on Plantago australis in Brazil

L. J. Dallagnol, Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, 96010-900, Pelotas, RS, Brasil; F. R. de Castro, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz,” Universidade de São Paulo, 13418-900, Piracicaba, SP, Brasil; E. N. Garcia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, 96010-900, Pelotas, RS, Brasil; and L. E. A. Camargo, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz,” Universidade de São Paulo, 13418-900, Piracicaba, SP, Brasil


The plantain Plantago australis Lam. (Plantaginaceae) is a herbaceous species native to southern Brazil that is known for the analgesic, antibiotic, and anti-inflammatory properties of its leaf extracts (2). Powdery mildew was observed on wild P. australis plants in the cities of Tapejara, Jari, and Santa Maria (State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) during the summer of 2011. Affected plants were more often observed in shaded areas. Signs included sparse to abundant white powdery masses of conidia and mycelium on pseudo-petioles and leaves, mostly on the adaxial surface. Severely affected plants (≥80% of foliar area affected) had small chlorotic leaves and reduced size compared to healthy ones. Mycelia were superficial and presented nipple-shaped appressoria. Conidiophores were often curved at the base, unbranched, cylindrical, 81 to 125 μm long (average 97.3 ± 14.9 μm) and composed of a cylindrical foot cell 52 to 73 μm long (average 65.4 ± 7.5 μm) and 9 to 14 μm wide (average 11.6 ± 1.5 μm) followed by one to two shorter cells 17 to 29 μm long (average 23.4 ± 3.6 μm). Conidia were produced in chains of up to eight cells, did not contain fibrosin bodies, ranged from ellipsoid-ovoid to subcylindrical, and measured 24 to 35 μm long (average 30.5 ± 3.7 μm) and 12 to 19 μm wide (average 15.8 ± 1.7 μm). Germ tubes were produced apically (reticuloidium type). Chasmothecia were not observed on sampled leaves. Genomic DNA was extracted from conidia, conidiophores, and mycelium and used to amplify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) (ITS1-5.8s-ITS2) region using the ITS1 and ITS4 primers. The resulting sequence (558 bp) was deposited under accession number JX312220 in GenBank. Searches with the BLASTn algorithm revealed similarity of 100% with Golovinomyces orontii (Castagne) V.P. Heluta 1988 from Veronica arvensis L. (AB077652.1) (3), 99% with G. orontii from Galium spurium L. and Galium aparine L. (AB430818.1 and AB430813.1) (2) and 99% with G. sordidus (L. Junell) V.P. Heluta 1988 from P. lanceolata L. (AB077665.1) (3). Based on morphological characteristics and sequence analysis of the ITS region, the fungus was identified as belonging to Golovinomyces sp. To fulfill Koch's postulates, five cultivated plants of P. australis with four to five expanded leaves were inoculated by dusting conidia (10 to 15 conidia cm–2) on their leaves. Inoculated and non-inoculated control plants were kept in a greenhouse at 27 ± 5°C and relative humidity of 80 ± 15%. Powdery mildew symptoms identical to those of wild plants were observed 8 to 10 days after in inoculated plants. Although G. sordidus was previously reported on P. australis subsp. hirtella in Argentina and on several species of Plantago in others world regions (1), to our knowledge, Golovinomyces sp. has not been previously reported as a pathogen of P. australis in Brazil. Although the economic impact of the disease is limited, the reduction in plant size and leaves affects biomass production used in the extraction of pharmaceutical compounds.

References: (1) U. Braun and R. T. A. Cook. Taxonomic Manual of the Erysiphales (Powdery Mildews), CBS Biodiversity Series 11, 2012. (2) G. C. Sousa et al. J. Ethnopharmacol. 90:135, 2004. (3) S. Takamatsu et al. Mycol. Res. 113:117, 2009.

Link: APS Journals

Ocorrência de Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) no Estado de Goiás

Jaqueline Magalhães Pereira I, 1; Aniela Pilar Campos de Melo I; Paulo Marçal Fernandes I; Everton Pires Soliman II

I Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG), Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos, CP 131, 74690-900, Goiânia, GO, Brasil. E-mail: jaqueline@agro.ufg.br
II Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Botucatu, São Paulo, SP, Brasil

 

 

RESUMO

O percevejo bronzeado Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) foi encontrado no Estado de Goiás atacando plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. e E. urophylla S. T. Blake. A detecção ocorreu nos municípios de São Luiz do Norte, São Francisco de Goiás e Goiânia.

Palavras-chave: percevejo bronzeado, praga florestal, Eucalyptus.

ABSTRACT

The bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) was found in Goiás state attacking Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. e E. urophylla S. T. Blake. The insect was detected in the cities of São Luiz do Norte, São Francisco de Goiás and Goiânia.

Key words: bronze bug, forestry pest, Eucalyptus. 

    

Female of Thaumastocoris peregrinus.

Link: Scielo

Diversidade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em área de Caatinga, PE, Brasil

Catarina Maria Aragão de Mello I; Iolanda Ramalho da Silva I; Juliana Souza de Pontes I; Bruno Tomio Goto II; Gladstone Alves da Silva I; Leonor Costa Maia I

I Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Micologia, Laboratório de Micorrizas, Recife, PE, Brasil
II Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Sistemática e Evolução, Departamento de Botânica Ecologia e Zoologia, Natal, RN, Brasil

 

RESUMO

O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de determinar a infectividade, a riqueza de FMA e a condição micorrízica da vegetação em área de Caatinga não antropizada. Coleta de solo e raízes foi realizada em Triunfo/PE. Raízes foram examinadas para determinação da colonização micorrízica. O número mais provável (NMP) de propágulos infectivos de FMA foi estimado por diluições sucessivas do solo e a utilização de milho (Zea mays L.) como planta isca. Glomerosporos foram quantificados e preparados em lâminas, para identificação das espécies. As plantas apresentaram-se pouco colonizadas (média < 10%) e o número de glomerosporos foi baixo (< 1 glomerosporo g-1 de solo), como registrado em outras áreas de Caatinga. O NMP de propágulos de FMA variou entre 64 e 70 cm-3 solo, indicando a importância dos outros propágulos (além dos glomerosporos) na dispersão dos FMA. Foram registrados 16 táxons de FMA, dos gêneros Acaulospora, Entrophospora, Gigaspora, Glomus, Kuklospora, Pacispora e Paraglomus; Glomus foi o mais representativo (sete espécies). Pacispora boliviana está sendo relatada pela primeira vez no Brasil. Os elevados teores de P na área provavelmente contribuiram para os baixos valores de colonização, infectividade e riqueza de FMA na área estudada. Confirma-se que os FMA são comuns em solos do semiárido brasileiro, com espécies de Glomus predominando nesse ambiente.

Palavra-Chave: Glomeromycota, Ocorrência, Semiárido

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to determine the infectivity and richness of AMF and the mycorrhizal conditions of the vegetation in a preserved area of Caatinga. Soil and root samples were taken in two subareas in the municipality of Triunfo, PE. The roots were stained with Trypan blue, and observed with a microscope to determine if colonization of mycorrhizal fungi was present. Glomerospores were extracted from soil, counted, mounted on microscope slides and the AMF species were identified. The plants from the area showed < 10% colonization. The number of glomerospores (<1 g-1 soil) did not differ between the subareas although in one area the amount of P in the soil was three times higher than in the other. The number of AMF propagules varied from 64 to 70 cm-3 in the soil. Sixteen taxa of AMF were registered and Glomus was the most representative genus, with seven species. Pacispora boliviana is reported for the first time in Brazil. The high amount of P probably contributes to the low values of propagules, colonization, infectivity and richness of AMF in the area. AMF have been commonly found in the Brazilian semiarid region and species of Glomus are predominant in this environment.

Key words: Glomeromycota, Occurrence, Semi-arid

Link: Scielo

A new species of Portanus (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae) from Brazil

Adenomar N. de Carvalho

Instituto de Biodiversidade e Florestas, Universidade Federal do Oeste de Pará, Rua Vera Paz, s/n, Salé, 68035-110, Santarém, Pará, Brasil. (adenomarc@yahoo.com.br)

 

ABSTRACT

Portanus Ball, 1932 comprises 45 species that occur in Brazil, including Portanus felixi sp. nov. described and illustrated herein. The genus is close to Paraportanus Carvalho & Cavichioli, 2009 and can be distinguished from it by having a transversal groove on the basal third of the subgenital plates. The new species can be distinguished from the other species of the genus by the characters of male genitalia, especially by the pygofer with the apical process pointed, sclerotized and dorso-ventrally directed; and by the aedeagus with apodeme on the basal third.

Keywords: Leafhoppers, Neotropical Region, Portanus felixi sp. nov., Taxonomy.

 

RESUMO

Portanus Ball, 1932 compreende 45 espécies que ocorrem no Brasil, incluindo Portanus felixi sp. nov. descrita e ilustrada neste estudo. O gênero está relacionado a Paraportanus Carvalho & Cavichioli, 2009 e pode ser diferenciado deste por apresentar um sulco transverso no terço basal das placas subgenitais. A nova espécie pode ser distinguida das demais do gênero principalmente pelos caracteres da genitália masculina, especialmente o pigóforo, que apresenta um processo apical pontiagudo, esclerotizado e direcionado dorsoventralmente; e pelo edeago, com apódema no terço basal da haste.

Palavras-chave: Cigarrinhas, Região Neotropical, Portanus felixi sp. nov., Taxonomia.

Link: Scielo

Primeiro relato de Myrothecium roridum em mucucizeiro no Pará

Tathianne Pastana de Sousa Poltronieri I; Ruth Linda Benchimo lII; Jaqueline Rosemeire Verzignassi III,*; Luiz Sebastião Poltronieri II

I Departamento de Fitopatologia e Entomologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, CEP 23890-000, Rio de Janeiro, RJ
II Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Tv. Enéas Pinheiro, S/N, CEP 66095-100, Belém, PA
III Embrapa Gado de Corte, Avenida Rádio Maia, 830, CEP 79106-550, Campo Grande, MS

 

 

O Brasil tem grande variedade de frutos que apresentam sabor exótico e grande potencial econômico. O murucizeiro (Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Rich.) é uma espécie frutífera nativa da Amazônia, com ampla distribuição geográfica no território brasileiro, com fruto de forma arredondada e coloração alaranjada, e sendo consumido principalmente na forma de sucos, doces e licores. Pertencente à família Malpighiaceae, várias espécies do gênero Byrsonima são conhecidas pela utilização de seus frutos na alimentação, como também pelo seu uso medicinal. Estudos dos extratos das raízes e troncos do murucizeiro têm demonstrado suas atividades antimicrobiana, tripanomicida e antiespasmódica. Em área experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, foram encontradas plantas de murucizeiro cujas folhas apresentavam manchas areoladas, com coloração parda e halo escuro Figura (1A). Amostras de folhas com os sintomas foram encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Fitopatologia da mesma Unidade da Embrapa para a identificação do agente causal. Procedeu-se o isolamento em meio ágar-água e as colônias obtidas do isolamento foram multiplicadas em BDA (26ºC, luz fluorescente e fotoperíodo de 12h). Observações ao microscópio óptico permitiram a identificação do fungo Myrothecium roridum Tode ex Fr. O fungo forma esporodóquios (Figura 1B), algumas vezes sinematosos, com até 700 μm de diâmetro. Os conídios apresentavam forma de bastão, às vezes elipsóides, com as extremidades comumente arredondadas, hialinos a levemente oliváceos, medindo de 4,5-7,3x1,5-2 μm (Figura 2). Testes de patogenicidade foram efetuados em folhas sadias destacadas previamente feridas, inoculadas com discos de cultura contendo estruturas do fitopatógeno e submetidas à câmara úmida por 48h. Após cinco dias, as folhas apresentaram os mesmos sintomas encontrados no campo. Efetuou-se o reisolamento do fungo, confirmando-se a sua patogenicidade. Myrothecium roridum foi detectado no Pará em juta (Corchorus capsularis L.), acerola (Malpighia glabra L.) e em noni (Morinda citrifolia L.). Este é o primeiro relato de M. roridum em murucizeiro no Pará e, provavelmente, no Brasil e no mundo.

Link: Scielo

First report of Thielaviopsis paradoxa causing stem rot in Dracaena marginata in Brazil

Álvaro Figueredo dos Santos I; Carlos Antonio Inácio II; Milton Vasconcelos Guedes III; Roberto TomazIII

I Embrapa Florestas, Cx. Postal 319, 83411-000, Colombo, PR, Brasil
II Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brasil
III Centro Diagnóstico Marcos Enrietti, Curitiba, PR

 

Dracaena (Dracaena marginata), Dracaenaceae Salisb. (1866), also known as Ruscaceae or synonymous of Asparagaceae (APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 399–436), is an evergreen ornamental shrub and has become increasingly popular in recent years as a palm-like specimen plant. This species is highly requested by interior designers and architects due to this feature. This plant is usually propagated by stem cuttings.

During the months of June and July 2006, several stem cuttings from dracaena were received at the Laboratory of Plant Pathology of "Embrapa Florestas" in Colombo, Paraná State (PR), Brazil, from a nursery in the municipality of Morretes-PR. These stem cuttings had external and transversal sections on the darkening tissue (Figure 2), affecting their quality. This study aimed to identify the causal agent of this disease.

Samples of the stem cuttings showing different stages of symptoms were collected and isolated on plates containing Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), a medium supplemented with ampicillin and chloramphenicol. The plates were incubated at 25oC, in the dark, for 7 days. Once isolated, the fungus was identified as Thielaviopsis sp. based on its morphological characteristics (Ellis MB (1971) Dematiaceous hyphomycetes. CMI, Kew, Surrey; Ellis MB (1971) More dematiaceous hyphomycetes. CMI, Kew, Surrey; Farr DF, Rossman AY., from http://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases); and Paulin-Mahady AE, HarringtonTC (2002)-Mycologia 94: 62–72.). One isolate was deposited in "Embrapa Florestas" (Collection number TP1) and UNB (2158).

A pathogenicity test was performed, consisting in the inoculation of stem cuttings and plants of dracaena by placing small PDA dishes (5 mm in diameter) containing fungal mycelium into damaged areas in the stem cuttings and plants. The fungus was pathogenic to both stem cuttings and plants, causing internal darkening of the stem and yellowing of the leaves at one month after inoculation (Figures 1 and 2).

The fungus was re-isolated in PDA and the colonies were maintained in the culture medium for morphological characterization, which indicated it was Thielaviopsis paradoxa (De Seynes) Höhn (Upadhyay HP (1981) A monograph of Ceratocyslis and Ceratocysliopsis. University of Georgia Press, Athens), showing colonies that were grayish to grayish-green occupying all plates after 10 days of incubation in PDA (12h light/dark; ± 22° C) (Figure 3), dark on the lower side, rugose; conidiophores 85-180 × 4-10 μm, straight, sometimes sinuous at the base, hyaline to light-brown, septated at the base, smooth; conidiogenous cells 57-80 × 7-10 μm, lageniform, sometimes cylindrical, hyaline, 3-4 μm diameter at the apex (Figures 5 and 6). Conidia were sometimes cylindrical 4-14 × 2-3 μm, truncate at the ends, phialidic, smooth, hyaline, becoming light-brown or sometimes varying in shape, cylindrical-oval or slightly ellipsoidal, 4-21 × 3-6 μm, with longitudinal slit, smooth or in chains (Figures 3, 7 and 8). The teleomorph Ceratocystis paradoxa (Dade) C. Moreau, which now includes the name T. paradoxa (Kirk (2009), Index fungorum. http://www.speciesfungorum.org/), was not observed. This is the first report of an anamorph of Ceratocystis paradoxa causing disease in dracaena in Brazil.

  

 

Link: Scielo